G20 New Delhi Summit (Summary)
On September 9 and 10, the G20 New Delhi Summit was held in New Delhi, hosted by India as the G20 Presidency, and Mr. KISHIDA Fumio, Prime Minister of Japan, attended it. The overview of the Summit is as follows.
At the G20 Summit, under the theme of “One Earth, One Family, One Future,” important issues such as food security, climate and energy, development, health and digitalization were discussed. Prime Minister Kishida made remarks in Session 1 (“One Earth”) and Session 3 (“One Future”). The G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration was issued as the summary of the discussions.
Prime Minister Kishida had brief talks with leaders of more than 29 countries on this occasion.
1. Session 1 “One Earth”
In this session, participants discussed such issues as the world economy, food security, climate and energy, and environment. Regarding Russia’s aggression agaisnt Ukraine, many G20 members, including Japan, emphasized the importance of observing the United Nations Charter and achieving a just and lasting peace in Ukraine. They also affirmed the need for the G20 to respond to the aggression’s increasing adverse impact on the world ecomomy.
(1) At the outset, Prime Minister Kishida stated that the international community faces multiple crises, making it increasingly important to cooperate at the G20, the premier forum for international economic cooperation. Prime Minister Kishida also introduced that the G7 Hiroshima Summit, hosted by Japan as the G7 Presidency, affirmed the importance of cooperation among a wide range of partners, including those beyond the G7, in order to address various challenges in the international community. He also stated that he has repeatedly confirmed with Indian Prime Minister Modi that the outcome of the G7 should be feed into the G20.
(2) Prime Minister Kishida pointed out that Russia’s aggression is exacerbating the difficulties of the global economy, including on food and energy, and that the G20 needs to address them. He also stressed the need to implement economic policies aimed at realizing sustainable and inclusive growth while correcting disparities, and emphasized the importance of making supply chains more resilient and carrying out revision of principles of corporate governance. Furthermore, Prime Minister Kishida stated that the rules-based, free and fair trading system, with the World Trade Organization (WTO) at its core, is the foundation for global growth and stability, and that Japan would like to cooperate with other countries toward the 13th WTO Ministerial Conference next year.
(3) Prime Minister Kishida stated that although 2023 marks the mid-point for achieving the SDGs, he cannot help but have a sense of urgency regarding the progress. He stressed that the G20 should take the lead in making efforts to achieve the SDGs.
(4) Regarding food issues, Prime Minister Kishida stated that a concrete action plan was formulated at the G7 Hiroshima Summit with the participation of invited countries, which confirmed the value of such initiatives as the “Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS)”, launched by the G20 to enhance data gathring, and the “Millet and other ancient grains international research initiative (MAHARISHI),” promoted by India. He also expressed his will to work on building sustainable and resilient agricultural and food systems. He went on to state that he strongly expects that Russia will return to an international framework in which the United Nations is involved to secure global food security.
(5) Prime Minister Kishida introduced that at the G7 Hiroshima Summit, the leaders of the G7 and invited countries shared the recognition of significance of the free and open international order based on the rule of law as well as the principles of the Charter of the United Nations such as respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity. In addition, Prime Minister Kishida pointed out that Russia’s aggression against Ukraine, which has shaken the foundation of G20 cooperation, still continues despite the condemnation by most leaders at the G20 Bali Summit last year. He also stated that it is critical for Russia to withdraw its troops immediately and for Ukraine to achieve a just and lasting peace. Furthermore, Prime Minister Kishida emphasized that Russia’s nuclear threat is absolutely unacceptable, let alone their actual use, and that it is necessary for the international community to send out a clear message in solidarity. He also stated that it is vital for the international community to extend assistance to those who are in vulnerable situations under conflicts.
(6) Regarding environment issues, Prime Minister Kishida showed Japan’s support to the “Lifestyle for Environment (LiFE)” promoted by Prime Minister Modi, and stated he would work together to transform the lifestyles of people. Furthermore, Prime Minister Kishida expressed his determination to play a leading role in the negotiations for a treaty on plastic pollution, toward the realization of the “Osaka Blue Ocean Vision” regarding marine plastic litter, and with the ambition to reduce additional plastic pollution to zero by 2040.
(7) Regarding climate and energy, Prime Minister Kishida pointed out that the implementation of the Paris Agreement is an urgent challenge in order to limit temperature rise to 1.5℃ He called for commitments by all Parties to achieving net zero by 2050 and peaking out global greenhouse gas emissions by 2025, toward COP28 (28th session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Prime Minister Kishida also stated that it is imperative to achieve transformation to a decarbonized economy through inclusive investments without compromising economic growth and energy security. Stressing the need to aim to achieve the common goal of net zero through various pathways, in line with national circumstances, he also expressed Japan’s intention to utilize all technologies and energy sources to promote innovation and support the efforts of each country. In addition, Prime Minister Kishida pointed out that further support for vulnerable countries is necessary, noting that the goal of annually mobilizing 100 billion dollars jointly by developed countries is expected to be achieved within this year. He stated that it is also important for all affluent Parties and stakeholders to contribute to finance mobilization from here on.
(8) Prime Minister Kishida explained that the discharge of Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) treated water into the sea has been conducted in accordance with international standards and practices while taking all possible measures for safety, and that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Comprehensive Report states that the radiological impact on humans and the environment is negligible. He explained that the data monitored since last month's discharge has been made public in a prompt and highly transparent manner, and that no problems have arisen from a scientific standpoint. He explained that the reliability of the data would be confirmedobjectively with the involvement of the IAEA and analytical institutions of third countries. He then stated that these points are widely understood by the international community, but that certain country has been taking uncommon actions such as suspending all imports of Japanese marine food products in response to the recent discharge into the sea, and that Japan would continue to call on actions based on scientific evidence and dissemination of accurate information. He also stated that Japan would continue to work closely with the IAEA and to provide explanations to the international community based on scientific evidence in good faith and in a highly transparent manner.
2. Session 2 “One Family”
In this session, patitipants discussed inclusive growth, the SDGs, health and other issues. G20 members confirmed the importance of reducing poverty and inequality, accelerating efforts toward the achivement of SDGs, and preparing for pamdemic.
3. Session 3 “One Future”
In this session, the leaders discussed the multilateral reforms, digital and other issues.
(1) Prime Minister Kishida reiterated Japan’s support for the membership of the African Union (AU) in the G20, given the increasing roles that African countries are playing in the international community in recent years.
(2) Prime Minister Kishida stated that in order to overcome the challenges we face and realize a better future, it is necessary to reform multilateral systems. He pointed out that as the future of the world depends on the future of developing countries, it is necessary to support their sustainable growth, and stated that Japan would work on the evolution of multilateral development banks in order to meet the development needs of developing countries. Prime Minister Kishida went on to state that it is necessary for more creditor and debtor countries to share the importance of transparent and fair development finance that complies with international rules and standards, and that we should promote such efforts also at the G20. Prime Minister Kishida emphasized that in order to respond to the debt problem of developing countries which is becoming serious, it is essential to promtply carry out debt restructuring through the “Common Framework for Debt Treatments beyond the Debt Service Suspension Initiative (DSSI)” and the meeting of Sri Lanka’s creditor nations, among other things. Furthermore, Prime Minister Kishida stated that when investing in infrastructure, the implementation of the “G20 Principles for Quality Infrastructure Investment” should be promoted, and that Japan has pledged in its new plan for a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP)” announced in March this year that it will mobilize more than 75 billion dollars in public and private funds for the infrastructure in the Indo-Pacific region by 2030.
(3) Prime Minister Kishida emphasized that in order to promote the reforms of multilateral systems, it is urgent to strengthen the functions of the United Nations, and that the Security Council in particular must be reformed. In addition, he pointed out a broadly shared recognition, including among developing countries, that the refomrs of the Security Council should be urgently promoted. He stated that there is a rising momentum for this, which he hoped will be connected to concrete actions in a cooperative manner with a view to such events as the Summit of the Future in 2024.
(4) Regarding health, Prime Minister Kishida stated that he attaches importance to achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC), as well as the strengthening of prevention, preparedness and response (PPR) for a possible next health crisis, including the provision of prompt and efficient funding in times of crisis. In particular, he stated that the G20 has confirmed the importance of strengthening the delivery of medical countermeasures (MCM), which was advocated at the G7 Hiroshima Summit, and that Japan would like to work with G20 countries, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, and other partners.
(5) Regarding digital, Prime Minister Kishida pointed out that investment in new technologies, including digital, is the key to a better future. He stated that the dramatic progress in digital technology, while having a positive and proactive impact on the economy and society, entails an issue of governance. He also pointed out that countermeasures against information manipulation, including false information, are also an important challege. Meanwhile, Prime Minister Kishida emphasized that data is at the core of the digital economy, and that based on the concept of “Data Free Flow with Trust (DFFT),” he would take the lead in discussing efforts to materialize this concept and the creation of international rules. Furthermore, Prime Minister Kishida stated that it is necessary to maximize the potential of generative AI while reducing its risk and use it to contribute to the growth of the entire world, including developing countries. He emphasized the importance of establishing governance to promote reliable and responsible AI based on the G20 AI Principles.
(6) Regarding international taxation, Prime Minister Kishida stated that a related multilateral treaty should immediately open for signature in order to prevent trade disputes related to the digital services tax and to stabilize the international taxation system at an early stage. He stated that G20 countries should sign it by the end of this year.
-Saturday, September 9
Session 1 “One Earth”
Session 2 “One Family”
-Sunday, September 10
Session 3 “One Future”
(2) Participating countries and international organizations
A: G20 member countries
Japan, India (Presidency), Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, United Kindom, United States, European Union
B: Invited countries
Bangladesh, Comoros (African Union (AU) Chair), Egypt, Mauritius, Netherlands, Nigeria, Oman, Singapore, Spain, United Arab Emirates
C. International organizations
Asian Development Bank (ADB), Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI), Financial Stability Board (FSB), International Labor Organization (ILO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Solar Alliance (ISA), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN), World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), World Trade Organization (WTO)