19 May 2000
Decision of the Advanced Information and Telecommunications Society Promotion Headquarters
(2) In Japan, the explosive propagation of the Internet, the over 55 million mobile telephone users and other phenomena demonstrate that IT is permeating all fields of the society and the economy in rapid and wide-ranging ways and that IT industries have begun to play a leading role in the economy. It is becoming indispensable to ensuring prosperity for Japan in the next century that our country succeeds in IT-driven social and economic reform.
The Government aims to further accelerate these currents of reform to realize expanded economic frontiers, the breakdown of high cost structures, the formation of energetic local communities and real senses of comfort and prosperity in its people's lives.
It is also important to use IT to the fullest extent possible as a tool for sustaining the vigor of Japan's society, one in which the decline of the birthrate and aging of the population will accelerate.
At the same time, the attack on web servers of Government organizations in January 2000 and other events have caused concern over security and reliability in the advanced IT society. The Government recognizes the need to deal with such problems, which can only hinder the development of the advanced IT society, swiftly and accurately.
(3) Based on this recognition, the Government will work to further accelerate the realization of the Basic Guidelines, giving particular priority to the five items below in consideration of their importance and urgency in building the advanced IT society.
(i) Propagation of electronic commerce
(ii) Computerization of the public sector
(iii) Cultivation of human resources and improvement of information literacy
(iv) Installation of advanced information/communications infrastructure
(v) Prevention of high-tech crime, security measures
(4) Regarding highly important and urgent areas including computerization of education, e-Government, and the IT 21st Century Plan (IT21), the then-Prime Minister, Keizo Obuchi, himself decided on the Millennium Projects. As the Projects are carried out, new implementation mechanisms are being adopted and promoted, including the setting of clear realization targets, the specification of annual plans for their implementation over several years and the establishment of systems for evaluation and advice by eminent specialists.
In addition, the Internet Fair 2001 Japan ("Inpaku" for short; nickname "Rakumou-Rakuza"), inviting local governments, private companies, non-profit organizations and others for participation, will be held over a one-year period from the end of 2000. The Committee for Internet Fair 2001 Japan, set up under the Prime Minister, has been deliberating specific matters concerning the implementation of various events at Inpaku. Inpaku is to be held with the aim of increasing the number of Internet users in Japan, celebrating the coming of the new century and promoting technology, industry and people's lives in the new century.
(5) Moreover, while the rapid propagation and utilization of IT does have extremely positive effects in the economy, a "digital divide" (the economic disparity between those who can obtain information and those who cannot) has emerged. Overcoming this digital divide has become a new policy challenge. The progress made in IT is effecting radical socioeconomic changes, and the digital divide and other problems that have accompanied the rapid development of IT are anticipated to be major issues taken up by G8 leaders at the G8 Kyushu-Okinawa Summit this July.
(6) As described above, the socioeconomic importance of IT increases with each passing day and, furthermore, changes occurring in this field are extremely volatile. For this reason, we must address the building of an advanced IT society not with rigid measures, but with a strategic approach that is flexible to changes in the situation.
- Development of electronic authentication
In order to further promote social and economic activities using networks, including e-commerce, in cases where information is exchanged by people over networks without actually meeting face to face, methods are needed for confirming whether the sender is actually the person identified on the network and whether information has been altered during transactions. Electronic signatures and certification services are being utilized as effective methods, but it has been pointed out that the lack of clear legal provisions regarding their legal status is hindering the propagation of these methods. At the same time, since the development of legal frameworks in this area is being promoted in foreign countries and international organizations, there is also a need for Japan to promptly establish such frameworks.
To this end, in order to promote the development of sound certification services and establish a legal foundation granting electronic signatures equal validity to handwritten signatures and personal seals, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and the Ministry of Justice have conducted deliberations on legal frameworks while giving consideration to international harmonization. Regarding electronic signatures, they have submitted to the current Diet the Bill Concerning Electronic Signatures and Certification Services, which covers such areas as the presumption of the authenticity of electro-magnetic records and provisions for voluntary accreditation of certification services.
After this bill is enacted and comes into force, in order to promote the smooth utilization of electronic signatures and firmly establish accreditation systems for certification services, Japan will quickly carry out the necessary administration, and in consideration of the borderless nature of electronic commerce, advance deliberations of the modalities of mutual approval with the various countries that are already advanced in their development of legal systems in this area.
- Appropriate protection of business model patents
Although definitions of so-called "business model patents" are not necessarily clear, in Japan these are treated as one aspect of software-related patents and screenings are currently being carried out under the operational guidelines regarding software-related patents.
Furthermore, due to the fact that worldwide interest in this topic, including concerns over the scope of patents that should be granted and the abuse of rights, is on the rise, we recognize the following to be important: (1) Increasing predictability for the industry by ensuring international harmonization of system administration and clarity of administration; (2) Cooperation among industrialized countries in areas such as building databases of precedents in order to contribute to the stabilization of screenings; (3) For Japan also to strengthen its gathering of domestic precedents.
At the Japan-U.S.-E.U. Trilateral Meeting of Patent Agency Directors in November 1999, participants agreed to carry out international comparative research. Efforts are now being carried out toward international harmonization and cooperation in screenings.
In addition, due to attention given to this subject, enterprises that lack knowledge and information on intellectual property rights need to deepen their understanding of patent systems, and the Japanese Patent Office is making efforts to provide the necessary information. We will also make efforts to implement necessary measures to ensure that healthy competition in the market is not hindered unfairly, while working with the authorities in charge of competitive policy.
- Protection of personal data
The Working Group on Personal Data Protection has conducted comprehensive deliberations on modalities for protection and use of personal data since July 1999. The Working Group completed its interim report in November 1999. The following month the Advanced Information and Telecommunications Society Promotion Headquarters responded by carrying out a decision to promote concrete deliberations toward the establishment of a basic legal system to become the core of a personal data protection system in Japan. In January 2000, the Personal Data Protection Task Force was set up under the Cabinet Councillor's Office on Internal Affairs and an Experts Committee for Legislation on Data Protection was held under the auspices of the Advanced Information and Telecommunications Society Promotion Headquarters. At the Experts Committee, specialized deliberations on the basic legal system are currently being advanced from a legislative viewpoint. The objective is to submit a bill based on the deliberations of the Experts Committee to the 2001 ordinary session of the Diet.
In addition, in specific fields (such as credit information, medical information and telecommunications information) the development of individual laws, including the revision of existing laws and regulations, will be considered.
- Review of systems for the purpose of promoting electronic commerce
In the promotion of electronic commerce, there is the view that systems and commercial rules that do not take into account network transactions, for example, those that require as conditions the preparation of documents, meetings and the existence of offices, are a hindrance. A major challenge from now on will be the development of systems and rules that are suited to the special nature of electronic commerce in consideration of this point.
(2) Computerization of the public sector
- Computerization of Government administration
Computerization of Government administration is being promoted comprehensively and systematically based upon the Master Plan for Promoting Government-wide Use of Information Technology (Cabinet decision of 20 December 1997).
Measures to computerize interaction between society and the Government being promoted include the development of a clearing system that provides and locates administrative information using an Internet homepage, while computerization measures within the Government include steps that make administrative work more efficient and enhanced by using information infrastructures, such as having one computer per person, intra-ministry and intra-agency Local Area Networks (LANs), and a Kasumigaseki Wide Area Network (WAN) that interconnects these LANs.
In particular, regarding administrative procedure between citizens and the Government, the Economic Rebirth Package (Ministerial Conference on Economic Measures, 11 November 1999) and the decision by the Prime Minister on the Millennium Projects (19 December 1999) call for the building of an electronic infrastructure that can carry out paperless administrative procedures using the Internet by FY2003. In response, the Strategic Framework for Promoting Digitalization of Administrative Procedures (approved by the Inter-Ministerial Council of Government Information Systems, 31 March 2000; reported 19 May to the Advanced Information and Telecommunications Society Promotion Headquarters) was compiled. From now on, it will be necessary, based on the Strategic Framework, to promote the development of a common infrastructure, formulate Action Plans (annual plans) for individual procedures at each ministry and agency, and steadily implement concrete measures aimed at realizing e-Government as a whole.
Rgarding the provision of administrative information to the people, in addition to the active provision through homepages and clearance systems, it will be necessary to develop systems that provide administrative document file catalogs in compliance with the information disclosure system.
Moreover, we will continue to strongly promote one-stop services, including one-stop services for procedures related to vehicle ownership and experimental one-stop administrative services provided at post offices.
Efforts by local governments are indispensable to the realization of the kind of e-Government administration envisioned by the Government, as they are in close touch with residents.
While there are examples of local governments making advanced measures for computerization, such as efforts on a wide-area multipurpose IC card in Gifu Prefecture, work on an integrated geographical information system in Urayasu City, Chiba Prefecture, and efforts toward electronic application and reporting in Yokosuka City, Kanagawa Prefecture, a disparity of effort among government offices can be seen -- a mere 51.8% of cities and municipalities have a LAN within their municipal office and there was only one computer per 3.4 people as of 1 April 1999.
The Government is formulating local fiscal measures for expenses related to LANs within municipal offices and other ways of promoting the computerization of procedures at local governments. From now on, the government must conduct validation tests of computerization systems and encourage local governments in their independent efforts in order to promptly realize e-Government that works at the national and local level. In addition, further coordination and cooperation by the Central and Local Governments Liaison Meeting for Government-wide Use of Information Technology (Secretariat: Management and Coordination Agency, Ministry of Home Affairs) will be necessary on items that require coordination between the central and local governments, such as connecting central and local government networks.
- Promotion of intelligent transport systems (ITS)
Five related ministries and agencies -- the National Police Agency, MITI, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (MPT) and the Ministry of Construction -- have promoted research and development of info-communications technologies and standardization activities in regard to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) -- integrated systems for roads and vehicles built using cutting-edge info-communications technology --which are expected to be a solution to traffic congestion, traffic accidents, environmental degradation and other road traffic problems; improve efficiency of logistics; and have wide-ranging socioeconomic effects (the ITS info-communications-related market is expected to grow to approximately JPY60 trillion (cumulative) by FY2015).
Specific results thus far include:
(1) Formulation of ITS system architecture and provision of its information through public announcements over the Internet;
(2) Expansion of the Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS) to all national expressways and roads in 18 prefectures (service began in Okinawa Prefecture on 11 May 2000) and its 1.63 million users;
(3) Initiation of the Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) system from April 2000;
(4) Approval of Japan's ETC and collision avoidance vehicle radar system by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Contribution to international standardization of the world's first specific system in the ITS info-communications field. Progress in ISO standardization process;
(5) Development of an intelligent system integrating three systems --smart ways (intelligent roads), smart gateways (intelligent communication) and smart cars (intelligent automobiles). Aiming at implementation of field trial of a travel support system in October 2000, realization of smart ways and smart car traffic on the No. 2 Tomei and Meishin Expressways, etc., targeted for 2003.
(6) Development of motor travel management systems, "park and ride" systems and other systems for the purpose of optimizing motor travel through ITS;
(7) Development of info-communications technologies for transforming cars into "moving offices;"
(8) Development of measures for research and development of wireless communication technology and on-board systems which will make the application of ETC technology possible in diverse fields such as parking lot administration and physical distribution administration;
(9) Promotion of Universal Traffic Management Systems (UTMS), development of the Automatic Management Information System (AMIS) in 23 prefectures, development of the Public Transport Priority System (PTPS) in seven prefectures, development of the Environment Protection Management System (EPMS) in three prefectures, development of the Motor vehicle Operation Control System (MOCS) in two prefectures;
(10) Implementation of support for model area experiment aimed at promotion of ITS into local communities;
(11) Promotion of measures using ITS technology in road transportation projects.
From now on, we will comprehensively and systematically promote the implementation of R&D and field trials on ITS info-communications technologies, promotion of ITS into local communities, activities to standardize ITS both in Japan and internationally and other measures in such areas as the further advancement of navigation systems, nonstop automatic toll collection systems, support for safe driving, optimization of traffic management, increased efficiency of road management, support for public transportation, increased efficiency of commercial vehicles, support for pedestrians and support for running of emergency vehicles, etc., and others.
- Promotion of the development and mutual use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
GIS makes advanced analysis and swift decision-making possible by comprehensively managing and processing data related to location and displaying it visually. The social usefulness and importance of GIS as fundamental technology for the advanced information and telecommunications society is recognized.
Based on this recognition, the Liaison Committee of Ministries and Agencies Concerned with Geographic Information Systems formulated the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Standards and Development Plan and conducted standardization toward GIS mutual use and organization of current data base conditions and issues. A Working Sectional Meeting on National Spatial Data Framework and a Working Section Meeting on Basic Spatial Data have been set up under the Board of the Liaison Committee of Ministries and Agencies Concerned with Geographic Information Systems. These Working Sectional Meetings have conducted field trials of the data usage based on Technical Standards and deliberated on measures for developing "metadata" and clearing houses that make data search over networks possible, and other issues. In addition, some ministries and agencies have taken the lead and have already developed metadata and clearing houses.
At the same time, each ministry and agency is to formulate an implementation plan of specific measures under the Development Plan. The Liaison Committee of Ministries and Agencies will publicly announce the results of the compilation of follow-ups of implementation plans and GIS promotion measures, and these shall be consistent for the government as a whole, i.e. through cooperation among related ministries and agencies.
Moreover, in order to realize efficient GIS development and dissemination through government-private sector cooperation, the Government-Private Sector Committee on GIS Promotion was established in January 1999. The Committee studied and inventoried the current condition of and issues related to data distribution. It considered the short-term measures and issued its interim report in July. Based on the interim report, related government ministries and agencies will carry out a Validation Test, which designates test areas at the prefectural level, from FY2000. Through this test the national government, local governments and the private sector will work together in implementing data development, data distribution and technology development in an effort to achieve effective development and dissemination of GISs through verifying their effectiveness.
(3) Cultivation of human resources and the improvement of information literacy
- Promoting use of IT by the elderly and people with disabilities
In the advanced information and telecommunications society, an information gap has formed between senior citizens and disabled people on the one hand and the rest of the people on the other. This gap is threatening to lead to a social and economic gaps. To ensure that this gap does not materialize, it is necessary to develop an information-barrier-free environment where the elderly, people with disabilities and everyone else can enjoy the benefits of IT.
In FY1999, we carried out measures including the development of IT-related equipment and systems that are easy for the elderly and people with disabilities to use and a subsidy for broadcast programs with closed captions, audio-narrated description and others.
We will continue after FY2000 to implement these measures, and in order to continue to further promote the development of people-friendly information-barrier-free environments that give full consideration to the elderly and people with disabilities, and will carry out the development of technologies that enable anyone to easily and comfortably use IT and the computerization of welfare fields that enable the elderly and others to enjoy independence and participation in society. In particular, we will also consider the related measures as part of the Millennium Projects.
- Computerization of education
Based on numerous studies carried on with the cooperation of various ministries and agencies at the Virtual Agency "Education Computerization Project," which was inaugurated in December 1998 as a promotion mechanism under the direct control of the Prime Minister, a final report was submitted in December 1999.
The various measures proposed in this report took form as the Millennium Project "Computerization of Education" that was directly chosen by former Prime Minister Obuchi and are implemented from FY2000. Specifically they aim at the development by FT2005 of environments where the Internet can be accessed from all elementary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools and teachers and students can use computers in all classes at all grade levels. The measures being carried out include the provision of computers and Internet connections at schools, development of intra-school LANs, implementation of training for teachers, development of contents for school education and the development of functions for a national center for school education.
While setting mid-term goals such as the two below, we are steadily implementing measures toward the target year of FY2005.
(i) Enable Internet accessibility from all public elementary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools and have all public school teachers master the ability to utilize computers by FY2001.
(ii) To host a festival that utilizes the Internet and includes participation by children in Japan and from abroad by FY2002, in order to comprehensibly evaluate from an international standpoint the progress made by Japan in the computerization of education and make these results widely known.
- Requests for the prompt review of provisions prohibiting on-line connections
As of 1 April 1999, 1,529 local governments have established ordinances and are formulating measures to protect personal privacy. However, some have also set provisions that uniformly prohibit on-line connections to the outside.
Establishing networks is indispensable to the advanced information and telecommunications society. The banning of on-line connections to the outside without exception is an obstruction to the utilization of the Internet in the school education environment and thus could be a factor hindering the realization of the advanced information and telecommunications society.
The government has already requested local governments to review measures prohibiting on-line connections to outside information/communication systems. In the last fiscal year, the Ministry of Home Affairs also requested that the on-line provision of personal information to the outside not be prohibited uniformly but instead the determination be made after considering separate factors such as the objective for provision and the level of concern over infringement of rights or profits. The government understands this issue as one that should be resolved for the sake of the realization of the advanced information and telecommunications society, and shall continue its requests to local governments.
(4) Installation of advanced information/communication infrastructure
- Developing a Comprehensive Technology Infrastructure for the Internet
Along with the explosive propagation of the Internet, we have carried out R&D in such areas as technologies applicable for ultra-high-speed and high-capacity transmission, and electronic watermarking, in order to build a next-generation Internet that is more secure, more reliable and enables ultra-high-speed, high-capacity information transmission.
From now on, the great importance has been pointed out of the development of technology for adapting to the Internet not only personal computers but also all kinds of equipment: from digital televisions to portable terminals and other home information appliances, and still further to memory, CPUs and other devices planted in electronic equipment. Because of this, as part of the Millennium Projects, we seek to: (i) Continue carrying out R&D regarding the next-generation Internet; and implement (ii) R&D regarding Internet technologies that utilize home information appliances; (iii) R&D regarding the Super Internet; and (iv) R&D regarding optical technologies; and by FY2005 to create an Internet environment where all of the people, regardless of where they are, can use ultra-high-speed Internet connections freely to obtain, process and transmit the desired information securely, swiftly and simply.
This R&D will be conducted jointly by industry, academia, and government agencies from the phase of seeking knowledge and information regarding initial-stage technology to the phase of building software and hardware, validating their functions and gaining a technological outlook for putting them into practice.
It will be up to the industry to make the software and hardware resulting from these phases at low cost and of uniform quality and mass-produce them in a short time. In addition, industry will be responsible for the phase in which proposals for international standards based on research results are made to international standardization organizations.
In order to effectively implement such projects where industry, academia, and government agencies cooperate, IT 21 Consortium, which comprised of related private sector enterprises, etc., was formed. The Consortium is carrying out R&D activities in sectors such as Internet software and Internet hardware. In order to ensure fairness, transparency and objectivity, the IT21 Evaluation and Advisory Council, comprised of experts and intellectuals from the outside, is carrying out evaluation of technology R&D.
In addition, in order to enable easy use of digital televisions as Internet terminals, we will promote the digitization of broadcasting while taking into consideration compatibility with the Internet.
- Introduction of a third-generation mobile telecommunications system (IMT-2000)
To meet the demands for mobile telecommunications, which have been growing steadily, the early introduction of a third-generation mobile telecommunications system (IMT-2000: International Mobile Telecommunications-2000) is being anticipated as a telecommunications infrastructure that is indispensable for the global multimedia mobile telecommunications of the future.
Up to now, international standardization has been advanced at the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and other bodies, incorporating a radio transmission system proposed by Japan. In Japan, technology standards and other related regulations necessary for the introduction of the system have been prepared and the Policy for Introduction of IMT-2000 has been publicized.
Toward the introduction of IMT-2000 within the year 2001, applications for enterprise participation in the market have been accepted since April 2000.
From now on, it is important to determine operators of IMT-2000 soon. It is also necessary to promote coordination with other countries in selection of additional global frequency bands and in advancement of technical specifications, all of which are indispensable for the smooth introduction of new services such as international roaming that realizes global services and high-speed data transmission to achieve comfortable mobile Internet environments.
- Realizing inexpensive usage fees
In today's era of the Internet, lower communications fees, especially the introduction of low-priced flat rate fee systems in Japan that allow users to make constant 24-hour Internet connections without worrying about connection duration, are essential to the revitalization of Japan's economy as well as the realization of the advanced information and telecommunications society.
At present, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone - East Corporation and Nippon Telegraph and Telephone - West Corporation, hereafter called "East and West NTTs") have been experimentally offering Internet connection services in Tokyo and parts of Osaka that allow 24-hour constant Internet service without concern for duration at a cost of 8,000 yen per month since November 1999. East and West NTTs plan to lower this figure after expanding the testing area in May 2000 to 4,500 yen or 2,900 yen. Within the current fiscal year, the area covered is to be expanded to cities that contain prefectural capitals and after that to gradually cover the entire country.
Other telecommunications enterprises, such as cable television businesses, are also offering flat rate services from 5,000 to 6,000 yen per month. From the end of December 1999, these other businesses also began providing services using digital subscriber lines (DSLs).
From now on, in order to cope with the demand for the introduction of flat rate fee systems for Internet transmission fees and other charge reductions, it will be necessary to further promote competition in local communications markets and introduce even lower flat rate fees by promoting the diversification of Internet access networks.
(5) Prevention of high-tech crime, security measures
- Enacting legislation against unauthorized computer access
With the goal of preventing computer-related crimes committed through using telecommunications lines and maintaining telecommunications-related order realized by access control functions, thereby contributing to the sound development of the advanced information and telecommunications society, the National Police Agency, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications submitted the Unauthorized Computer Access Bill to the Diet, which was passed and became law in August 1999 (Law No.128 of 1999). The law's content includes provisions for prohibiting and penalizing acts of unauthorized computer access and acts of facilitating unauthorized computer access, as well as protective measures by access administrators and assistance by Prefectural Public Safety Commissions.
The law's provisions, with the exception of those for assistance by Prefectural Public Safety Commissions went into force on 13 February 2000 (provisions for assistance by Prefectural Public Safety Commissions will go into force on 1 July 2000).
The importance of network security has been seriously recognized in the wake of the series of attacks on web servers of Japanese government agencies perpetrated from late January 2000. From now on, we are responsible for building an environment where acts of unauthorized access are not committed in society at large through the enforcement of this legislation.
- Information security measures
Regarding information security measures, the Interagency Director-Generals' Meeting on IT Security was established in September 1999 to enable relevant ministries and agencies to cooperate in tackling a wide range of issues, including measures against hackers and cyber-terrorism, and legal issues. On 21 January 2000, the Meeting bore its first fruit --the determination of the Action Plan for Building Foundations of Information Systems Protection from Hackers and other Cyberthreats. The Action Plan specifies a basic approach and specific measures for ensuring appropriate information security standards for both the government and the private sector that correspond with the development of computerization and networks, and is comprised of the following four pillars:
(i) Within the scope of the construction of e-Government, to implement various measures to improve the government's own security measures and set up a specific time schedule for each.
* Construction of a government system that is highly reliable in terms of security
* Development and strengthening of systems for monitoring and emergency operations
* Deliberation on comprehensive and systematic information security measures
* Cultivation and securing of human resources, including the active utilization of human resources from the private sector
(ii) To formulate within 2000 a Special Action plan Concerning Measures to Combat Cyberterrorism for promotion of efforts concerning financial, energy, information /communications and other important private sector infrastructures.
(iii) To strengthen international cooperation in this area.
(iv) To carry out a follow-up to this Action Plan within the year.
Later, starting on 24 January, there were successive incidents in which the homepages of the Science and Technology Agency, the Management and Coordination Agency, the Ministry of Transport and other government-related organizations were hacked into and compromised. Once again, the importance of strengthening security measures was recognized. In response, the following systemic aspects were strengthened.
(i) The Interagency Director-Generals' Meeting on IT Security was enlarged and reorganized, and the Inter-ministerial Coordination Body, which is comprised of bureau-chief-level members of all government ministries and agencies, was established under the Advanced Information and Telecommunications Society Promotion Headquarters. (Decision by the Chairman of the Advanced Information and Telecommunications Society Promotion Headquarters, 29 February. First meeting: 12 April.)
(ii) The Wisemen committee for IT security, comprised of knowledgeable representatives of the private sector was established under the Advanced Information and Telecommunications Society Promotion Headquarters. (Decision by the Chairman of the Advanced Information and Telecommunications Society Promotion Headquarters, 29 February. First meeting: 20 April.)
(iii) The Branch for IT Security was established within the Cabinet Secretariat. (Decision by the Prime Minister, 29 February.)
At the 12 April meeting of the Interagency Director-Generals' Meeting on IT Security, it was agreed that from now on all ministries and agencies would work together based on the Action Plan to further accelerate efforts to promote the measures. In addition, further challenges include work on medium-term issues such as the enhancement of education, research on Information Warfare (IW) and deliberation on the legal system.