Japan's National Statement
Japan believes that it is her moral responsibility to take the non-nuclear path as the only country to have suffered from atomic bombings, and has taken the lead in the abolition of nuclear weapons while advancing the cause of nuclear disarmament and strengthening the efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation.
Moreover, Japan, as a country with few natural resources, initiated its peaceful use of nuclear power early on from the perspective of energy security. Currently, 54 nuclear reactors for power generation are in operation across Japan, accounting for approximately 30% of electricity generation. In order to guarantee the peaceful use of nuclear power, Japan has concluded a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under which Japanese nuclear facilities are subject to the safeguards. Japan has also established a mechanism that maintains a high level of nuclear security and safety. Thus, Japan has managed to ensure the elements associated with the so-called 3S (Safeguards, Security and Safety). Furthermore, Japan has gained the trust of the international community by continuing the peaceful use of nuclear power while incorporating and maintaining the highest possible levels of transparency.
The attacks of 9/11 that took place in the United States in 2001 significantly changed the international community's perception of the threat of terrorism. As a result, regarding the peaceful use of nuclear power, the importance of nuclear security measures, such as physical protection of nuclear material, has grown.
Amid a "nuclear renaissance," some 60 countries are considering introducing nuclear power for the first time. Furthermore, the amount of nuclear material subject to physical protection is expected to increase remarkably as a result of future progress in nuclear disarmament. To pursue both nuclear disarmament (which involves dismantlement of nuclear weapons) and peaceful use of nuclear power, it will be important to ensure nuclear security. From this perspective, Japan strongly supports President Obama's initiative to "secure all vulnerable nuclear materials around the world within four years," and confirms its commitment to further strengthening nuclear security.
2. Threat of Nuclear Terrorism
Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States, the international community has made a certain level of progress in the implementation of anti-terrorism measures as a result of efforts made by countries around the world. Meanwhile, as acts of terrorism have frequently taken place around the world, there are still strong concerns over the possibility of more terrorist attacks occurring.
In March 1995, Japan suffered a sarin gas attack on Tokyo's subway system by the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult group which aimed to carry out indiscriminate mass murder. The attack killed 13 people and wounded about 6,300 others.
It is presumed that the purity level of the sarin that was used by Aum Shinrikyo was low by military standards and the method of use was primitive. Nonetheless, 15 years after the sarin gas attack, many people wounded by the attack are still suffering physically and mentally. While it is not easy to assess the threat of nuclear terrorism, we must take bold action with firm determination to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the associated damage before the threat becomes a reality, in other words, before it's too late. It is important to keep warning about the threat of terrorism.
As activities of terrorist groups have spread across borders in recent years and in light of the unimaginable impact of an act of nuclear terrorism, it is essential for the international community to act in concert to strengthen nuclear security. In this sense, it is significant that this summit has brought together the leaders of 47 countries in a timely manner.
3. National Actions to Secure Nuclear Material
(1) Basic Concept
The responsibility for ensuring thorough control of nuclear material in a country rests primarily with the country's national government. Particularly, the government needs to not only make clear who or which organization is responsible for the control of nuclear material but also establish the necessary infrastructures, including legislation to protect nuclear material and nuclear-related facilities and systems to secure capabilities for the accounting, control and protection of nuclear material. Moreover, it is important to regularly review the implementation of those measures in light of the progress in international efforts regarding nuclear security as well as domestic circumstances. It is also necessary to properly control radioactive material, which could be used to make a so-called dirty bomb, in accordance with a relevant code of conduct adopted by the IAEA.
Given that it is the business operators who actually undertake the physical protection of nuclear material, it is also necessary to ensure that industrial circles increase their awareness and involvement regarding the importance of nuclear security.
(2) Actions Taken by Japan
From the above-mentioned perspective, Japan has taken the following actions, among others, in order to strengthen nuclear security, particularly since the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States in 2001.
(A) Strengthening of Security of Nuclear Facilities
(B) Strengthening of Protection of Nuclear Material
(C) Ratification of Nuclear Terrorism Convention (International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism)
(D) Development of Anti-Terrorism Technology
(E) Strengthening the Control of Radioactive Sources
(F) Conversion to Use of Low-Enriched Uranium in Research Reactors
(G) Strengthening Export Controls on Nuclear and Radioactive Material
4. International Actions to Secure Nuclear Material
(1) Basic Concept
While the responsibility for controlling nuclear material held in a country rests primarily with the country's national government, it is important to extend cooperation to countries, upon their request, that need support in the development or improvement of nuclear security measures.
Although various significant international initiatives are already under way to strengthen nuclear security, it will be necessary in the future to implement them in a comprehensive manner while continuing to further strengthen them. To do so, Japan believes that it will be important to further international cooperation, particularly regarding the following measures, in an effective and efficient manner in cooperation with the IAEA, while avoiding overlaps and maintaining efficient coordination.
(A) Drafting of and Universal Adherence to International Rules
(B) Strengthening of Capacity-Building, including Human Resource Development
(C) Establishment of Networks of Experts and Working-Level Officials
(D) Development of Leading Technologies
(2) Efforts by Japan
Based on the above-mentioned perspective, Japan has made the following efforts to strengthen nuclear security under the framework of international cooperation.
(A) Efforts toward Universal Adoption of International Treaties
(B) Conscientious Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1540
(C) Contribution to the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GI) as an Original Member
(D) Capacity-Building and Networking in Asia and Other Regions
(3) Japan's Contributions to the Strengthening of Nuclear Security
As mentioned above, Japan has made various efforts, at the national, the regional and the global level, to strengthen nuclear security. To demonstrate its further commitment to the strengthening of nuclear security both at the regional and the global level, Japan is announcing the following initiatives at the Nuclear Security Summit:
(A) Establishment of Integrated Support Center for Strengthening of Nuclear Security in Asia
Moreover, recognizing that nuclear security measures require sustainable implementation over the long-term, Japan will this year establish a regional center for the strengthening of nuclear security, tentatively named the "Integrated Comprehensive Support Center for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Security for Asia" under the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), with the aim of institutionalizing support for nuclear security on a permanent basis and contributing to strengthened nuclear security in Asia and other regions in line with opinions expressed at the aforementioned seminar in January.
Regarding Japan's support for capacity-building efforts including education and training, which was mentioned in the Japan-U.S. Joint Statement toward a World without Nuclear Weapons, issued in November 2009, Japan will contribute to the improvement of global nuclear security in cooperation with the IAEA and the United States by implementing human resource development programs, including seminars, through the activities of this center. In addition, Japan would like to make further efforts to spread its know-how and contribute to the establishment of a network of nuclear security-related personnel mainly in Asia.
(B) Development of Technology related to Measurement and Detection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Forensics based on International Cooperation
(C) Contributions to IAEA Nuclear Security Programs
(D) Hosting of a WINS Conference
5. The Role of the IAEA
(1) Basic Concept
Japan will support the IAEA's activities to strengthen nuclear security, such as (i) formulation of rules, (ii) a comprehensive review of the implementation of nuclear security measures and (iii) support for capacity-building efforts, including human resource development.
The IAEA has played a central role in efforts to strengthen global nuclear security, and it is desirable for the Agency to continue strengthening its activities. To that end, it will be important for the IAEA to secure the necessary human, financial and other resources.
(2) Japan's Contributions to the IAEA
Japan has actively participated in the drafting of the IAEA's Nuclear Security series documents, including a recommendation regarding the protection of nuclear material (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5), thereby contributing to the formulation of rules on nuclear security by the IAEA. Following the publication of these documents, Japan would like to reflect their contents as necessary in domestic laws and regulations.
Moreover, Japan, in cooperation with the IAEA, has been implementing programs to strengthen nuclear security, improve accounting and control of nuclear material and enhance capabilities to detect nuclear material for the purpose of preventing illicit trafficking of such material in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan and Georgia. In recent years, Japan has focused particularly on Asian countries including Vietnam and Thailand in implementing programs to strengthen the physical protection of nuclear material and improve capabilities to detect radioactivity, and it intends to continue cooperation with the IAEA to strengthen nuclear security in Asia.